(1.) Hebrews `asherah, properly a wooden image, or a pillar representing Ashtoreth, a sensual Canaanitish goddess, probably usually set up in a grove (2 Kings 21:7; 23:4). In the Revised Version the word "Asherah" (q.v.) is introduced as a proper noun, the name of the wooden symbol of a goddess, with the plurals Asherim (Exodus 34:13) and Asheroth (Judges 3:13).
The LXX. have rendered asherah in 2 Chronicles 15:16 by "Astarte." The Vulgate has done this also in Judges 3:7.
(2.) Hebrews `eshel (Genesis 21:33). In 1 Samuel 22:6 and 31:13 the Authorized Version renders this word by "tree." In all these passages the Revised Version renders by "tamarisk tree." It has been identified with the Tamariscus orientalis, five species of which are found in Palestine.
(3.) The Hebrews word `elon, uniformly rendered in the Authorized Version by "plain," properly signifies a grove or plantation. In the Revised Version it is rendered, pl., "oaks" (Genesis 13:18; 14:13; 18:1; 12:6; Deuteronomy 11:30; Joshua 19:33). In the earliest times groves are mentioned in connection with religious worship. The heathen consecrated groves to particular gods, and for this reason they were forbidden to the Jews (Jeremiah 17:3; Ezek. 20:28).