(1.) As food, prohibited in Genesis 9:4, where the use of animal food is first allowed. Comp. Deuteronomy 12:23; Leviticus 3:17; 7:26; 17:10-14. The injunction to abstain from blood is renewed in the decree of the council of Jerusalem (Acts 15:29). It has been held by some, and we think correctly, that this law of prohibition was only ceremonial and temporary; while others regard it as still binding on all. Blood was eaten by the Israelites after the battle of Gilboa (1 Samuel 14:32-34).
(2.) The blood of sacrifices was caught by the priest in a basin, and then sprinkled seven times on the altar; that of the passover on the doorposts and lintels of the houses (Exodus 12; Leviticus 4:5-7; 16:14-19). At the giving of the law (Exodus 24:8) the blood of the sacrifices was sprinkled on the people as well as on the altar, and thus the people were consecrated to God, or entered into covenant with him, hence the blood of the covenant (Matthew 26:28; Hebrews 9:19, 20; 10:29; 13:20).
(3.) Human blood. The murderer was to be punished (Genesis 9:5). The blood of the murdered "crieth for vengeance" (Genesis 4:10). The "avenger of blood" was the nearest relative of the murdered, and he was required to avenge his death (Numbers 35:24, 27). No satisfaction could be made for the guilt of murder (Numbers 35:31).
(4.) Blood used metaphorically to denote race (Acts 17:26), and as a symbol of slaughter (Isaiah 34:3). To "wash the feet in blood" means to gain a great victory (Psalm 58:10). Wine, from its red colour, is called "the blood of the grape" (Genesis 49:11). Blood and water issued from our Saviour's side when it was pierced by the Roman soldier (John 19:34). This has led pathologists to the conclusion that the proper cause of Christ's death was rupture of the heart. (Comp. Psalm 69:20.)