Only olive oil seems to have been used among the Hebrews. It was used for many purposes: for anointing the body or the hair (Exodus 29:7; 2 Samuel 14:2; Psalm 23:5; 92:10; 104:15; Luke 7:46); in some of the offerings (Exodus 29:40; Leviticus 7:12; Numbers 6:15; 15:4), but was excluded from the sin-offering (Leviticus 5:11) and the jealousy-offering (Numbers 5:15); for burning in lamps (Exodus 25:6; 27:20; Matthew 25:3); for medicinal purposes (Isaiah 1:6; Luke 10:34; James 5:14); and for anointing the dead (Matthew 26:12; Luke 23:56).

It was one of the most valuable products of the country (Deuteronomy 32:13; Ezek. 16:13), and formed an article of extensive commerce with Tyre (27:17).

The use of it was a sign of gladness (Psalm 92:10; Isaiah 61:3), and its omission a token of sorrow (2 Samuel 14:2; Matthew 6:17). It was very abundant in Galilee. (see OLIVE.)